For Authors

Fees * Requirements * Guidelines * Resubmission Instructions * Uploading Supplementary Files




  • Submissions are free of charge.

Accepted Manuscripts

  • P&I does not currently charge a publishing fee.

Submission Requirements (for initial submission)

  • Select a file format that will maintain styles such as superscript, subscript, and italics

  • All information and graphics should be contained in a single file

  • You will be asked to copy and paste the title, abstract and references into the submission application

  • You may, if you wish, provide unedited complete reviews from another named journal together with their response to these critiques that may assist in the review

  • There is not a word count limit for submissions, but we prefer that accepted manuscript be fewer than 6,000 words

STOP! These are all of the guidelines you need for your initial submission.

Guidelines for Accepted Manuscripts

If the paper has been accepted for publication the authors will be asked to resubmit the work in the Pathogens and Immunity format. This Microsoft Word template can be used in addition to the guidelines below.


  • Text Length

    • Less is More. We prefer texts fewer than 6,000 words.

  • Figures and Tables

    • We prefer manuscripts containing fewer than 6 figures/tables.

  • Figure Panels

    • Figures should be clearly constructed with readily comprehensible panels and legends. We strongly recommend as few panels per figure as are necessary for clarity of presentation. Figures containing more than 8 panels are discouraged.

  • Supplementary Data

    • Pathogens and Immunity wishes to have all necessary information contained within each manuscript. If supplementary data are viewed as essential, these data should be contained within no more than 2 figures/tables. Images may be uploaded as supplementary data.


Pathogens and Immunity only accepts manuscripts written in English. Only electronic documents will be reviewed. Hardcopy manuscripts will not be considered. Please format your accepted manuscript using the following criteria:

  • Manuscripts should be in MS Word format

  • After a period, leave only 1 space before beginning the next sentence.

  • Protein sequences have been deposited to a Protein Database (PDB) and Genetic sequences have been deposited to a database such as GenBank. The accession numbers and IDs are used as references to the sequences

  • In-text citations to the references should be made in brackets

    • Examples: [1], [20], [21]

  • In-text references to Figures and Tables should be written as Figure 1 and Table 1 in the text. To identify the part of any element, it should be written as Figure 1(a).

  • Italics are used for bacterial and viral taxa at the level of family and below

What to Include in the Manuscript

The following materials, if applicable, should be included in a single manuscript file along with your article:

  • Title Page

    • Title

    • Standfirst: an introductory sentence that summarizes the main point of the article (Optional: Could be used in the TOC)

    • Author List

      • List all of the authors’ full names

      • Include an email address for each author

        • This is a requirement to register the author's name in the article metadata and table of contents
      • Use the ICMJE Recommendations for authorship requirements

      • Include a reference to the list of authors affiliations in superscript following the author’s name

        • Example: Joe A. Smith1, Jane B. Smith2

    • List of affiliations

      • List the name of each affiliated institution or organization preceded by the reference numbers in the author list in superscript

      • The list of institutions goes in the order of the reference numbers

      • Each institution is separated with a semicolon

      • Example: 1Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; 2Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Tennessee School of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee

      • Names of institutions

        • Locations, including geographic designations that are part of the name, do not need to be translated into English. Please refer to the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names for the common English preferred designation he city, state or province, and country

  • Financial support/disclosures

  • Corresponding Author

    • Provide e-mail address and telephone number of the primary contact (which will be published with the article)

  • Keywords

  • Abstract

    • Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words

    • It should consist of four paragraphs, labeled:

      • Background

      • Methods

      • Results

      • Conclusions

    • Authors should briefly describe the problem being addressed in the study, how the study was performed, the salient results, and what the authors conclude from the results

    • The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references

    • Do not use citations in the abstract

    • For clinical trials include the clinical trial registration number at the end of the abstract

  • Graphical Abstract (optional)

    • This is a image or visual element that summarizes the article

  • Introduction

  • Methods

    • The Methods section should include a statement that informed consent was obtained from human subject study participants or their parents or guardians, and that human experimentation guidelines of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and/or those of the authors' institution were followed in the conduct of clinical research, under a protocol reviewed and approved by an appropriate institutional review committee. In the case of animal subjects research, a statement that experimentation was performed in compliance with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (or otherwise similar guidelines), and that the study was approved by an appropriate institutional review committee. 
  • Tables

    • Be sure that each table is cited in the text

    • Provide tables within the manuscript file using the MS Word table tool

    • Do not use any other program, tabs or spaces to align columns

    • If a table cannot be created in Word, please submit it as an image

    • Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a title for each

    • Titles in tables should be short but self-explanatory. Readers should be able to understand the table's content without having to refer back to the text

    • When referencing table parts, use lowercase superscripts a, b, c, etc. Examples:

      a Reference to column one, row one

      b Reference to column two, row three

  • Figures

    • All figures should be referenced and numbered in the text

      • Examples: Figure 1., Figure 2
    • Images should be uploaded as supplementary files

      • Make sure the file names correspond to the reference in the text

    • Please include a caption describing the figure
    • In-text references to parts of a figure should be lowercase letters in parentheses: (a), (b), (c)
    • All images must conform to NLM guidelines, particularly the file type, size and resolution

    • The author(s) must either maintain the copyright or have permission from the copyright holder to reproduce any image submitted to P&I

    • If a photograph of an identifiable patient is used, the patient should complete and sign a release form

    • Any information that might identify the patient or hospital should be removed from the image

  • Results

  • Discussion

  • References

    • Use PubMed Central/NLM formatting for references

      • List the names of all authors

    • If using EndNote or another similar citation manager, you can use the citation style "Vancouver", with the option for "all authors" selected in the preferences.
    • When using EndNote, please make sure to select "Link in-text citations to references in the bibliography" and "Underline Linked in-text citations" in the EndNote Format Bibliography menu.
    • References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text

    • Use surname first, followed by two initials

      • List all authors in the reference

    • Use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) when applicable

  • Acknowledgments

    • Conflicts of interest statement

      • All relevant conflicts of interests must be stated

Submitting a Revised Manuscript

  • Log in to
  • You are now on the page "Active Submissions"
    • Click on the title of your submission
  • You are now on the page "#XX Summary"
    • At the top of the page click the link "Review"
  • You are now on the page "#XX Review"
    • At the bottom of the page under "Editor Decision", click "Choose File"
    • Select the revised version of your manuscript
    • Click "Upload"

The editor will now receive an automatic message notifying them that you have uploaded your revised submission. The new file show now be available with a new name next to "Author Version"

  • If you wish to send a personalized message to the editor:
    • Click the envelope icon next to "Notify Editor"

Submitting Supplementary Files

  • Log in to
  • You are now on the page "Active Submissions"
    • Click on the title of your submission
  • You are now on the page "#XX Summary"
    • On the fourth line under the heading "Submission", click on the link "Add a Supplementary File"
    • Enter the metadata associated with the supplementary file
    • Select the supplementary file
    • Click "Save"