Clinical Application of Interferon-γ Release Assays for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in Countries with Low Incidence

Christoph Lange, Anna M. Mandalakas, Barbara Kalsdorf, Claudia M. Denkinger, Martina Sester

Abstract


Despite global efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) the estimated number of people who developed TB worldwide increased to an all-time record of more than 10 million in 2015. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the global incidence of TB to less than 100 cases per million by 2035, cannot be reached unless TB prevention is markedly improved. There is a need for an improved vaccine that better protects individuals who are exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis from infection and active disease compared to the current M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine. In the absence of such a vaccine, prevention relies on infection control measures and preventive chemotherapy for people with latent infection with M. tuberculosis (LTBI), who have the highest risk of progression to active TB. During the past decade, interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) have increasingly replaced the tuberculin skin test as screening tools for the diagnosis of LTBI in countries with a low incidence of TB. Despite recent WHO guidelines on the management of LTBI, the definition of groups at risk for TB remains controversial, and the role of IGRAs for TB prevention in low-incidence countries remains uncertain. We reviewed the scientific literature and provide recommendations for the use of IGRAs for LTBI diagnosis in low-incidence countries. These recommendations are based on the number of patients needing treatment in order to prevent one case of TB. As the positive predictive value of IGRAs for the development of TB is sub-optimal, research must focus on the identification of alternative biomarkers that offer better predictive ability in order to substantially reduce the number needing treatment while improving the prevention of TB and improving the effectiveness of targeted preventive chemotherapy.

Keywords


Interferon- release assays, Quantiferon, risk groups, T-Spot-TB,

Full Text:

HTML PDF

References


1. Koch R. Die Aetiologie der Tuberculose. Berl Klin Wschr. 1882;19:221-30.

2. World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2016. Geneva, Switzerland: 2016.

3. World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2015. Geneva, Switzerland: 2015. Report No.

4. Nardell EA. Transmission and Institutional Infection Control of Tuberculosis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015;6(2):a018192. PubMed PMID: 26292985. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a018192

5. Zumla A, Raviglione M, Hafner R, von Reyn CF. Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(8):745-55. PubMed PMID: 23425167. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1200894

6. Marais BJ, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC, Obihara CC, Starke JJ, Enarson DA, Donald PR, Beyers N. The natural history of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis: a critical review of literature from the pre-chemotherapy era. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004;8(4):392-402. PubMed PMID: 15141729.

7. Abel L, Casanova JL. Genetic predisposition to clinical tuberculosis: bridging the gap between simple and complex inheritance. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;67(2):274-7. PubMed PMID: 10882573. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC1287174. doi: 10.1086/303033

8. Sester M, van Leth F, Bruchfeld J, Bumbacea D, Cirillo DM, Dilektasli AG, Dominguez J, Duarte R, Ernst M, Eyuboglu FO, Gerogianni I, Girardi E, Goletti D, Janssens JP, Julander I, Lange B, Latorre I, Losi M, Markova R, Matteelli A, Milburn H, Ravn P, Scholman T, Soccal PM, Straub M, Wagner D, Wolf T, Yalcin A, Lange C, Tbnet. Risk assessment of tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients. A TBNET study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190(10):1168-76. PubMed PMID: 25303140. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201405-0967OC

9. Gómez-Reino JJ, Carmona L, Rodrígues Valverde V, Martín Mola E, Montero MD. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk. A multicenter active-surveillance report. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2122-7.

10. Comstock G, Livesay VT, Woolpert SF. The prognosis of a positive tuberculin reaction in childhood and adolescence. Am J Epidemiol. 1974;99(2):131-8.

11. World Health Organization. The End TB strategy. Geneva, Switzerland: 2014.

12. Gunther G, Lange C, Alexandru S, Altet N, Avsar K, Bang D, Barbuta R, Bothamley G, Ciobanu A, Crudu V, Danilovits M, Dedicoat M, Duarte R, Gualano G, Kunst H, de Lange W, Leimane V, Magis-Escurra C, McLaughlin AM, Muylle I, Polcova V, Popa C, Rumetshofer R, Skrahina A, Solodovnikova V, Spinu V, Tiberi S, Viiklepp P, van Leth F, for T. Treatment Outcomes in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(11):1103-5. PubMed PMID: 27626539. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1603274

13. Falzon D, Gandhi N, Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Cox HS, Holtz TH, Hollm-Delgado MG, Keshavjee S, DeRiemer K, Centis R, D'Ambrosio L, Lange CG, Bauer M, Menzies D, Collaborative Group for Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data in M-T. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs: impact on multidrug-resistant TB outcomes. Eur Respir J. 2013;42(1):156-68. PubMed PMID: 23100499. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4487776. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00134712

14. Erkens CG, Kamphorst M, Abubakar I, Bothamley GH, Chemtob D, Haas W, Migliori GB, Rieder HL, Zellweger JP, Lange C. Tuberculosis contact investigation in low prevalence countries: a European consensus. Eur Respir J. 2010;36(4):925-49. PubMed PMID: 20889463. 36/4/925 [pii]. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00201609

15. Mack U, Migliori GB, Sester M, Rieder HL, Ehlers S, Goletti D, Bossink A, Magdorf K, Holscher C, Kampmann B, Arend SM, Detjen A, Bothamley G, Zellweger JP, Milburn H, Diel R, Ravn P, Cobelens F, Cardona PJ, Kan B, Solovic I, Duarte R, Cirillo DM, Lange C, for the TBNET. LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to M. tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2009;33(5):956-73. PubMed PMID: 19407047. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00120908

16. Stagg HR, Zenner D, Harris RJ, Munoz L, Lipman MC, Abubakar I. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: a network meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(6):419-28. PubMed PMID: 25111745. doi: 10.7326/M14-1019

17. Mendel F. Über intrakutane Tuberkulinanwendung zu diagnostischen Zwecken (Intrakutanreaktion). Beitr Klin Tuberk. 1909;13:139-44.

18. Mantoux C. L'intradermo-réaction à la tuberculine et son interprétation clinique. Presse Méd. 1910;(no 2):10-3.

19. von Pirquet C. Die Allergieprobe zur Diagnose der Tuberkulose im Kindesalter. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1907;57:1370-4.

20. Critselis E, Amanatidou V, Syridou G, Spyridis NP, Mavrikou M, Papadopoulos NG, Tsolia MN. The effect of age on whole blood interferon-gamma release assay response among children investigated for latent tuberculosis infection. J Pediatr. 2012;161(4):632-8. PubMed PMID: 22632878. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.04.007

21. Mukherjee A, Saini S, Kabra SK, Gupta N, Singh V, Singh S, Bhatnagar S, Saini D, Grewal HM, Lodha R, Delhi TBSg, Aneja S, Arya T, Bhatnagar S, Chandra J, Dutta A, Doherty T, Friis H, Grewal HM, Hesseling A, Kabra S, Lodha R, Marais B, Mukherjee A, Parashar D, Prajapati S, Purohit K, Saini D, Saini S, Singh RR, Singh S, Singh V. Effect of micronutrient deficiency on QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test and tuberculin skin test in diagnosis of childhood intrathoracic tuberculosis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(1):38-42. PubMed PMID: 24169461. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.216

22. Mandalakas AM, van Wyk S, Kirchner HL, Walzl G, Cotton M, Rabie H, Kriel B, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC. Detecting tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected children: a study of diagnostic accuracy, confounding and interaction. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(3):e111-8. PubMed PMID: 23190784. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31827d77b7

23. Mandalakas AM, Hesseling AC, Chegou NN, Kirchner HL, Zhu X, Marais BJ, Black GF, Beyers N, Walzl G. High level of discordant IGRA results in HIV-infected adults and children. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12(4):417-23. PubMed PMID: 18371268.

24. Stefan DC, Dippenaar A, Detjen AK, Schaaf HS, Marais BJ, Kriel B, Loebenberg L, Walzl G, Hesseling AC. Interferon-gamma release assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with cancer. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14(6):689-94. PubMed PMID: 20487605.

25. Carvalho AC, Schumacher RF, Bigoni S, Soncini E, Notarangelo L, Apostoli A, Bonfanti C, Cirillo D, Mantegani P, Porta F, Comelli M, Matteelli A. Contact investigation based on serial interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) in children from the hematology-oncology ward after exposure to a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis. Infection. 2013;41(4):827-31. PubMed PMID: 23575516. doi: 10.1007/s15010-013-0450-y

26. Bumbacea D, Arend SM, Eyuboglu F, Fishman JA, Goletti D, Ison MG, Jones CE, Kampmann B, Kotton CN, Lange C, Ljungman P, Milburn H, Morris MI, Muller E, Munoz P, Nellore A, Rieder HL, Sester U, Theodoropoulos N, Wagner D, Sester M. The risk of tuberculosis in transplant candidates and recipients: a TBNET consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2012;40(4):990-1013. PubMed PMID: 22496318. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00000712

27. Leidl L, Mayanja Kizza H, Sotgiu G, Ernst M, Hirsch C, Goletti D, Toossi Z, Lange C. Relationship of immunodiagnostic assays for tuberculosis and numbers of circulating CD4+ T-cells in HIV infection. Eur Respir J. 2010;35:619-26. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00045509

28. Barcellini L, Borroni E, Brown J, Brunetti E, Campisi D, Castellotti PF, Codecasa LR, Cugnata F, Di Serio C, Ferrarese M, Goletti D, Lipman M, Rancoita PM, Russo G, Tadolini M, Vanino E, Cirillo DM. First evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus performance in contact screening. Eur Respir J. 2016;48(5):1411-9. PubMed PMID: 27390280. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00510-2016

29. Hoff ST, Peter JG, Theron G, Pascoe M, Tingskov PN, Aggerbeck H, Kolbus D, Ruhwald M, Andersen P, Dheda K. Sensitivity of C-Tb: a novel RD-1-specific skin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. Eur Respir J. 2016;47(3):919-28. PubMed PMID: 26677940. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01464-2015

30. Aksenova VA, Klevno NI, Baryshnikova LA, Dolzhenko EN, Iliasova EV, Medvedev S, Lapshina VN, Kavtarashvili SM. [Diaskintest for tuberculosis in children and adolescents]. Tuberk Biolezni Legkih. 2009 (10):13-6. PubMed PMID: 20050055.

31. Kiselev VI, Baranovskii PM, Rudykh IV, Shuster AM, Mart'ianov VA, Mednikov BL, Demin AV, Aleksandrov AN, Mushkin A, Levi DT, Slogotskaia LV, Ovsiankina ES, Medunitsin NV, Litvinov VI, Perel'man MI, Pal'tsev MA. [Clinical trials of the new skin test Diaskintest for the diagnosis of tuberculosis]. Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk. 2009 (2):11-6. PubMed PMID: 19382637.

32. Litvinov VI, Shuster AM, Slogotskaia LV, Sel'tsovskii PP, Ovsiankina ES, Mushkin A, Vinogradova TI, Levi DT, Bocharova IV, Filippov AV, Stakheeva LB. [Effectiveness of new diagnostic drug Diaskintest in children for tuberculosis diagnostic]. Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk. 2009 (4):19-22. PubMed PMID: 19514449.

33. Sester M, Sotgiu G, Lange C, Giehl C, Girardi E, Migliori GB, Bossink A, Dheda K, Diel R, Dominguez J, Lipman M, Nemeth J, Ravn P, Winkler S, Huitric E, Sandgren A, Manissero D. Interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2011;37(1):100-11. PubMed PMID: 20847080. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00114810

34. Zhou XX, Liu YL, Zhai K, Shi HZ, Tong ZH. Body Fluid Interferon-gamma Release Assay for Diagnosis of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15284. PubMed PMID: 26503802. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4621514. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep15284

35. de Visser V, Sotgiu G, Lange C, Aabye MG, Bakker M, Bartalesi F, Brat K, Chee CB, Dheda K, Dominguez J, Eyuboglu F, Ghanem M, Goletti D, Dilektasli AG, Guglielmetti L, Koh WJ, Latorre I, Losi M, Polanova M, Ravn P, Ringshausen FC, Rumetshofer R, de Souza-Galvao ML, Thijsen S, Bothamley G, Bossink A, Tbnet. False-negative interferon-gamma release assay results in active tuberculosis: a TBNET study. Eur Respir J. 2015;45(1):279-83. PubMed PMID: 25359336. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00120214

36. Zellweger JP, Sotgiu G, Block M, Dore S, Altet N, Blunschi R, Bogyi M, Bothamley G, Bothe C, Codecasa L, Costa P, Dominguez J, Duarte R, Floe A, Fresard I, Garcia-Garcia JM, Goletti D, Halm P, Hellwig D, Henninger E, Heykes-Uden H, Horn L, Kruczak K, Latorre I, Pache G, Rath H, Ringshausen FC, Ruiz AS, Solovic I, Souza-Galvao ML, Widmer U, Witte P, Lange C, Tbnet. Risk Assessment of Tuberculosis in Contacts by IFN-gamma Release Assays. A Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;191(10):1176-84. PubMed PMID: 25763458. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201502-0232OC

37. Chee CB, KhinMar KW, Gan SH, Barkham TM, Koh CK, Shen L, Wang YT. Tuberculosis treatment effect on T-cell interferon-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. Eur Respir J. 2010;36(2):355-61. PubMed PMID: 19926734. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00151309

38. Denkinger CM, Pai M, Patel M, Menzies D. Interferon-gamma release assay for treatment monitoring of active tuberculosis - An explosion in the spaghetti factory. J Clin Microbiol. 2012. PubMed PMID: 23175268. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02278-12

39. Katiyar SK, Sampath A, Bihari S, Mamtani M, Kulkarni H. Use of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test to monitor treatment efficacy in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12(10):1146-52. PubMed PMID: 18812044.

40. Ribeiro S, Dooley K, Hackman J, Loredo C, Efron A, Chaisson RE, Conde MB, Boechat N, Dorman SE. T-SPOT.TB responses during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:23. PubMed PMID: 19250549. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2651889. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-23

41. Tameris MD, Hatherill M, Landry BS, Scriba TJ, Snowden MA, Lockhart S, Shea JE, McClain JB, Hussey GD, Hanekom WA, Mahomed H, McShane H, Team MATS. Safety and efficacy of MVA85A, a new tuberculosis vaccine, in infants previously vaccinated with BCG: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9871):1021-8. PubMed PMID: 23391465. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60177-4

42. Dorman SE, Belknap R, Graviss EA, Reves R, Schluger N, Weinfurter P, Wang Y, Cronin W, Hirsch-Moverman Y, Teeter LD, Parker M, Garrett DO, Daley CL. Interferon-g release assays and tuberculin skin testing for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;189:77-87. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201302-0365OC

43. Slater ML, Welland G, Pai M, Parsonnet J, Banaei N. Challenges with QuantiFERON-TB Gold assay for large-scale, routine screening of U.S. health care workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188:1005-10.

44. Schablon A, Nienhaus A, Ringshausen FC, Preisser AM, Peters C. Occupational screening for tuberculosis and the use of a borderline zone for interpretation of the IGRA in German healthcare workers. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e115322. PubMed PMID: 25541947. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4277296. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115322

45. Lange C, van Leth F, Sester M, Tbnet. Viral Load and Risk of Tuberculosis in HIV Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;71(2):e51-3. PubMed PMID: 26761521. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000834

46. World Health Organization. Guidelines on the management of latent tuberculosis infection. World Health Organization Document. 2015;WHO/HTM/TB/2015.01:1-33. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/latent-tuberculosis-infection/en/

47. Geis S, Bettge-Weller G, Goetsch U, Bellinger O, Ballmann G, Hauri AM. How can we achieve better prevention of progression to tuberculosis among contacts? Eur Respir J. 2013;42(6):1743-6. PubMed PMID: 23900989. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00187112

48. Sloot R, Schim van der Loeff MF, Kouw PM, Borgdorff MW. Risk of tuberculosis after recent exposure. A 10-year follow-up study of contacts in Amsterdam. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190(9):1044-52. PubMed PMID: 25265362. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201406-1159OC

49. Hermansen TS, Lillebaek T, Langholz Kristensen K, Andersen PH, Ravn P. Prognostic value of interferon-gamma release assays, a population-based study from a TB low-incidence country. Thorax. 2016;71(7):652-8. PubMed PMID: 27030576. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-208228

50. Schablon A, Nienhaus A, Ringshausen FC, Preisser AM, Peters C, Staff PO. Correction: Occupational Screening for Tuberculosis and the Use of a Borderline Zone for Interpretation of the IGRA in German Healthcare Workers. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142541. PubMed PMID: 26540199. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4634864. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142541

51. Kik SV, Franken WP, Mensen M, Cobelens FG, Kamphorst M, Arend SM, Erkens C, Gebhard A, Borgdorff MW, Verver S. Predictive value for progression to tuberculosis by IGRA and TST in immigrant contacts. Eur Respir J. 2010;35(6):1346-53. PubMed PMID: 19840963. 09031936.00098509 [pii]. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00098509

52. Sester M, van Crevel R, Leth F, Lange C. Numbers needed to treat to prevent tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 2016;46(6):1836-8. PubMed PMID: 26621887. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01047-2015

53. Pai M. Serial testing with TB interferon-gamma release assays: toward a nuanced understanding. Chest. 2012;142(6):1366-7. PubMed PMID: 23208326. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-1208

54. Moses MW, Zwerling A, Cattamanchi A, Denkinger CM, Banaei N, Kik SV, Metcalfe J, Pai M, Dowdy D. Serial testing for latent tuberculosis using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube: A Markov model. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30781. PubMed PMID: 27469388. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4965809. doi: 10.1038/srep30781

55. Nolan CM, Goldberg SV, Buskin SE. Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid preventive therapy. A 7-year survey from a public health tuberculosis clinic. JAMA. 1999;281:1014-8.

56. van Hest R, Baars H, Kik S, van Gerven P, Trompenaars MC, Kalisvaart N, Keizer S, Borgdorff M, Mensen M, Cobelens F. Hepatotoxicity of Rifampin-Pyrazinamide and Isoniazid Preventive Therapy and Tuberculosis Treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:488-96. doi: 10.1086/422645

57. Menzies D, Gardiner G, Farhat M, Greenaway C, Pai M. Thinking in three dimensions: a web-based algorithm to aid the interpretation of tuberculin skin test results. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12(5):498-505. PubMed PMID: 18419884.

58. Lalvani A, Pathan AA, McShane H, Wilkinson RJ, Latif M, Conlon CP, Pasvol G, Hill AVS. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by enumeration of antigen-specific T cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:824-8.

59. Mori T, Sakatani M, Yamagishi F, Takashima T, Kawabe Y, Nagao K, Shigeto E, Harada N, Mitarai S, Okada M, Suzuki K, Inoue Y, Tsuyuguchi K, Sasaki Y, Mazurek GH, Tsuyuguchi I. Specific detection of tuberculosis infection: an interferon-gamma-based assay using new antigens. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170(1):59-64. PubMed PMID: 15059788. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200402-179OC

60. Harada N, Higuchi K, Yoshiyama T, Kawabe Y, Fujita A, Sasaki Y, Horiba M, Mitarai S, Yonemaru M, Ogata H, Ariga H, Kurashima A, Wada A, Takamori M, Yamagishi F, Suzuki K, Mori T, Ishikawa N. Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of two whole blood interferon-gamma assays for M. tuberculosis infection. J Infect. 2008;56(5):348-53. PubMed PMID: 18395264. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2008.02.011

61. Kirsch S, Thijssen S, Alarcon Salvador S, Heine GH, van Bentum K, Fliser D, Sester M, Sester U. T-cell numbers and antigen-specific T-cell function follow different circadian rhythms. J Clin Immunol. 2012;32(6):1381-9. PubMed PMID: 22797814. doi: 10.1007/s10875-012-9730-z

62. Metcalfe JZ, Cattamanchi A, McCulloch CE, Lew JD, Ha NP, Graviss EA. Test variability of the QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube assay in clinical practice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(2):206-11. PubMed PMID: 23103734. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3570654. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201203-0430OC

63. Andersen P, Munk ME, Pollock JM, Doherty TM. Specific immune-based diagnosis of tuberculosis. Lancet. 2000;356(9235):1099-104. PubMed PMID: 11009160.

64. Millington KA, Innes JA, Hackforth S, Hinks TS, Deeks JJ, Dosanjh DP, Guyot-Revol V, Gunatheesan R, Klenerman P, Lalvani A. Dynamic relationship between IFN-gamma and IL-2 profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells and antigen load. J Immunol. 2007;178(8):5217-26. PubMed PMID: 17404305.

65. Day CL, Abrahams DA, Lerumo L, Janse van Rensburg E, Stone L, O'Rie T, Pienaar B, de Kock M, Kaplan G, Mahomed H, Dheda K, Hanekom WA. Functional capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses in humans is associated with mycobacterial load. J Immunol. 2011;187(5):2222-32. PubMed PMID: 21775682. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3159795. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101122

66. Lalvani A. Counting antigen-specific T cells: a new approach for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatment? Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(5):757-9. PubMed PMID: 14986263. doi: 10.1086/381763

67. Denkinger CM, Pai M, Patel M, Menzies D. Gamma interferon release assay for monitoring of treatment response for active tuberculosis: an explosion in the spaghetti factory. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(2):607-10. PubMed PMID: 23175268. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3553895. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02278-12

68. Tagmouti S, Slater M, Benedetti A, Kik SV, Banaei N, Cattamanchi A, Metcalfe J, Dowdy D, van Zyl Smit R, Dendukuri N, Pai M, Denkinger C. Reproducibility of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release Assays. A systematic review. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11(8):1267-76. PubMed PMID: 25188809. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201405-188OC

69. Wallis RS, Pai M, Menzies D, Doherty TM, Walzl G, Perkins MD, Zumla A. Biomarkers and diagnostics for tuberculosis: progress, needs, and translation into practice. Lancet. 2010;375(9729):1920-37. PubMed PMID: 20488517. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60359-5

70. Ruhwald M, Ravn P. Biomarkers of latent TB infection. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2009;3(4):387-401. PubMed PMID: 20477330. doi: 10.1586/ers.09.31

71. Zwerling A. T-cell IFN-gamma responses in patients treated for LTBI Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;Supplement (Proceedings of the Second Global Symposium on Interferon-Gamma Release Assays):18.

72. Hill PC, Brookes RH, Fox A, Jackson-Sillah D, Jeffries DJ, Lugos MD, Donkor SA, Adetifa IM, de Jong BC, Aiken AM, Adegbola RA, McAdam KP. Longitudinal Assessment of an ELISPOT Test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. PLoS Med. 2007;4(6):e192. PubMed PMID: 17564487.

73. Wilkinson KA, Kon OM, Newton SM, Meintjes G, Davidson RN, Pasvol G, Wilkinson RJ. Effect of Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection on the T Cell Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens. J Infect Dis. 2006;193(3):354-9. PubMed PMID: 16388482.

74. Beyers N, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Van Zyl S, Talent JM, Nel ED, Donald PR. A prospective evaluation of children under the age of 5 years living in the same household as adults with recently diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1997;1(1):38-43. PubMed PMID: 9441057.

75. Mandalakas AM, Hesseling AC, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Marais BJ, Sinanovic E. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent tuberculosis in child contacts in a high-burden setting. Thorax. 2013;68(3):247-55. PubMed PMID: 22717944. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200933

76. Mazurek GH, Jereb J, Vernon A, LoBue P, Goldberg S, Castro K, Committee IE, Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Updated guidelines for using Interferon Gamma Release Assays to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection - United States, 2010. Rep. 2010;59(RR-5):1-25. PubMed PMID: 20577159. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5905a1.htm

77. Starke JR, Committee On Infectious D, Committee On Infectious D. Interferon-gamma Release Assays for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Infection and Disease in Children. Pediatrics. 2014;134(6):e1763-73. PubMed PMID: 25422024. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-2983

78. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Tuberculosis: clinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2016.

79. Perez-Velez CM, Marais BJ. Tuberculosis in children. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(4):348-61. PubMed PMID: 22830465. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1008049

80. Detjen AK, DiNardo AR, Leyden J, Steingart KR, Menzies D, Schiller I, Dendukuri N, Mandalakas AM. Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Respir Med. 2015. PubMed PMID: 25812968. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00095-8

81. Ling DI, Crepeau CA, Dufresne M, Khan S, Quach C, Dendukuri N, Schwartzman K, Menzies D, Lands LC, Pai M. Evaluation of the Impact of Interferon- Gamma Release Assays on Management of Childhood Tuberculosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012. PubMed PMID: 22828646. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318269d10c

82. World Health Organization. Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children. Geneva, Switzerland: 2015.

83. World Health Organization. Use of tuberculosis interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in low- and middle-income countries - Policy Statement. Geneva, Switzerland: 2011.

84. Karo B, Haas W, Kollan C, Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer B, Hamouda O, Fiebig L, German ClinSurv HIVSG. Tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in the German ClinSurv HIV Cohort: long-term incidence and risk factors. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:148. PubMed PMID: 24646042. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3994660. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-148

85. Gutsfeld C, Olaru ID, Vollrath O, Lange C. Attitudes about tuberculosis prevention in the elimination phase: a survey among physicians in Germany. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112681. PubMed PMID: 25393241. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4231044. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112681

86. Kaufmann SHE, Lange C, Rao M, Balaji KN, Lotze M, Schito M, Zumla A, Maeurer M. Progress in tuberculosis vaccine development and host-directed therapies - a state of the art review. Lancet Respir Med. 2014;2:301-20. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70033-5

87. Zak DE, Penn-Nicholson A, Scriba TJ, Thompson E, Suliman S, Amon LM, Mahomed H, Erasmus M, Whatney W, Hussey GD, Abrahams D, Kafaar F, Hawkridge T, Verver S, Hughes EJ, Ota M, Sutherland J, Howe R, Dockrell HM, Boom WH, Thiel B, Ottenhoff TH, Mayanja-Kizza H, Crampin AC, Downing K, Hatherill M, Valvo J, Shankar S, Parida SK, Kaufmann SH, Walzl G, Aderem A, Hanekom WA, Acs, groups GCcs. A blood RNA signature for tuberculosis disease risk: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2016;387(10035):2312-22. PubMed PMID: 27017310. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01316-1

88. Allerberger F, Cambau E, Lange C. Joint efforts urgently needed at times of emerging tuberculosis drug resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016. PubMed PMID: 27592088. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.08.023


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Christoph Lange

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© Pathogens and Immunity 2017